Symposium X—MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials

Keith A. Brown (Boston University), John Dunlap (UES, Inc. and Air Force Research Laboratory), Robert Epps (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), Jason Hattrick-Simpers (University of Toronto) and Kiran Vaddi (University of Washington)

How to Build A Self-Driving Lab

Written by Sophia Chen

John Dunlap's PhD research could be tedious. The chemist, now working with UES, Inc., and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) contractor in Ohio, was developing polymer-coated quantum dots for biomedical applications at the University of South Carolina. The synthesis process was partially automated, but on many days, he would have to sit around and wait to press a button every 15 minutes. To test the samples, he would have to walk down three floors to use the instruments. And then he would do this over and over again, zeroing in on the recipe he sought. "It was a lot of blood, sweat, and tears on my end," he told the crowd during Thursday's Symposium X - MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials.

By the time Dunlap obtained his PhD degree in 2022, materials science researchers had begun adopting new automation strategies that pushes the exhausting repetitive laboratory work to robots and computers. During the panel discussion on “How To Build A Self-Driving Lab,” Dunlap, along with Keith A. Brown of Boston University, Jason Hattrick-Simpers of the University of Toronto, Kiran Vaddi of the University of Washington, and Robert Epps of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, discussed their experiences developing and using laboratory techniques that do not require any human intervention.

Not all lab processes are suitable for full automation. It may not be worth it to automate experiments that are too short or too long, said Brown. “There’s a sweet spot in terms of experiment length,” he says.

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In 2016, Brown’s group began developing a self-driving lab based on 3D-printing for making and testing mechanical materials that can efficiently absorb energy. These materials might be useful in designing helmets or the crumple zone of a car, for example. Brown’s system consists of six 3D printers arranged in a circle with a robotic arm in the middle, along with instruments that can weigh and perform compression tests on the 3D-printed elements. They’ve named it Mama Bear, which stands for “Mechanics of Additively Manufactured Architectures Bayesian Experimental Autonomous Researcher.”

Brown’s research team tasked Mama Bear with finding a 3D-printed structure with optimal energy absorption efficiency. “Over the span of about two years of continuous study, we’re able to find structures that exceeded the limits that have been previously found,” he said.

Dunlap, collaborating with AFRL, now has a fully automated continuous flow setup for synthesizing small molecules and modifying polymers. This self-driving setup can explore solid state reactions and photochemical reactions, among others, and perform NMR measurements for testing. The researchers are moving toward updating the setup to be capable of high-throughput experiments.

The panelists emphasized the importance of using modular machines that run on open-source software. This allows researchers to assemble and customize components to make a self-driving lab for their scientific needs. Vaddi cautioned that the commercially available machines he uses for designing colloidal nanoparticles are becoming increasingly less open-source and more expensive. “We are trying to move away from these highly expensive systems and build low-cost modular hardware,” he said.

Hattrick-Simpers talked about how to assemble a team with the necessary skills and mindset to build these self-driving labs. People can sometimes have a “trust barrier” to automation, and it’s crucial that team members fully buy into the concept. Otherwise “you're not going to make a lot of progress,” he said.

In addition, building a self-driving lab requires an interdisciplinary team with “broad range and skill set,” said Epps. Hattrick-Simpers advised researchers to be realistic about what a single person can do. “You can’t expect one person to build the AI … and have the bandwidth to become a subject matter expert,” he said.

Several panelists have moved beyond simply showing that their systems work. Brown and Hattrick-Simpers are developing user facilities at Boston University and the University of Toronto, their respective institutions.

Symposium X—MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials features lectures aimed at a broad audience to provide meeting attendees with an overview of leading-edge topics.

Symposium X—MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials

Giulia Grancini, Università degli Studi di Pavia

Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells—A Game Changer for Near-Future Photovoltaics

Written by Elizabeth Wilson

In the past decade, perovskites have emerged as a promising material for solar cells. Current silicon-based solar cell production consumes lots of energy and is technologically intensive.

Perovskite solar cells sound almost too good to be true: with efficiencies of up to 26%, they self assemble from solutions, and production is scalable and less expensive. They're also recyclable and use 90% less energy in manufacturing compared with silicon-based cells. However, they have serious drawbacks that have so far thwarted industrial progress. They are unstable in moisture and heat, they have short lifetimes, and they can possibly release lead as they degrade.

At Wednesday's Symposium X—MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials, Giulia Grancini, at the Universita degli Studi di Pavia, described her research group’s advances in hybrid perovskite solar cell designs.

A typical three-dimensional design consists of perovskite crystals and organic compounds. Scientists have found that a two-dimensional perovskite structure is more stable in water. But its efficiency is only 15%.

Grancini has been experimenting with hybrid perovskite solar cell designs that combine two-dimensional and three-dimensional perovskite structures, in an attempt to increase both efficiency and stability.

Much attention is now focused on the interface between layers of 2D and 3D materials, where the 2D layer protects the more efficient 3D layer from moisture in a phenomenon known as surface passivation. The industry standard lifetime for solar cells is about 25 years; Grancini's hybrid remained stable over a year of accelerated aging tests, which is more than 25 actual years.

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Recently, Grancini's group has been trying to understand how crystal orientation affects charge transport. The 2D perovskites form vertical columns aligned perpendicular to the substrate, which boosts charge transport.

Grancini hopes that new stability breakthroughs will come within a few years, moving the technology towards industrial use.

Symposium X—MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials features lectures aimed at a broad audience to provide meeting attendees with an overview of leading-edge topics.

Symposium X—MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials

Róisín Owens, University of Cambridge

Advanced Tissue Engineering for In Vitro Drug Safety and Toxicology Testing

Written by Alison Hatt

In Tuesday’s Symposium X—MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials, Róisín Owens of the University of Cambridge gave an overview of her work engineering tissues and integrating devices into cell and tissue models to probe electronic and ionic activity. The measurements can detect pathogens, reveal the impact of drug therapies, and interrogate tissue function, and the work broadly aims to improve in vitro models and accelerate drug discovery.  

Most of the work Owens discussed involved devices fabricated from conducting polymers, primarily PEDOT:PSS, which have both ion and electron conductivity and so can translate ionic signals to electronic and vice versa. Conducting polymers also have the great advantage of starting as a liquid, allowing Owens and her collaborators to construct devices in all manner of different shapes and sizes.


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She described several projects involving cell membranes, modeled by creating a supported lipid bilayer on the surface of a planar device like a multielectrode array, which can measure the membrane’s resistance and capacitance. Her laboratory used this technique to detect the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into a cell membrane, and to detect whether the virus was successfully blocked by a therapeutic antibody. They also used the technique to interrogate disparate parts of neurons, which can have very different morphologies and properties in different parts of the cell, observing the varying resistance due to changes in ion-channel density.

Stepping up a level in complexity, Owens described her work with barrier tissues next, in which ion flow is controlled by groups of cells. When those barriers are compromised in our bodies, pathogens can enter tissues and many diseases are connected to compromised barriers. Using a transistor device, Owens’s lab measured ion flow in a barrier tissue exposed to tumor-derived extracellular vesicles, which can fuse with healthy cells and spread cancer to them. They observed a change in resistance at the time of exposure due to a hypothesized change in cell morphology and could also observe the effect of a drug treatment, screening continuously to monitor its effect.

Owens also described her group’s work making 3D tissue models. Their strategy is to seed fibroblasts into a porous scaffold of PEDOT:PSS, where they excrete extracellular matrix, forming a sort of cyborg tissue. The researchers can then grow a layer of epithelium or endothelium on top of the membrane. In this manner, Owens’s research group has developed models for gut, brain, and lung tissue, building up stratified tissues with multiple components, allowing them to interrogate diseases and functions of those tissues. Using impedance measurements, the team can discern the signature of different tissue types.


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Measuring the impedance of intestinal epithelial tissue is useful for studying the gut microbiome and the connection between the gut and the brain. Owens showed results of an experiment where they added two types of live E. coli bacteria to the model and observed an increase in impedance, which indicated that the bacteria had strengthened the barrier.

Owens also discussed ongoing work to try and address human tissues ex vivo or in vivo with multielectrode devices. In one project, group members created an all-planar device for lung and gut models that can be placed atop existing tissue to measure its barrier properties. In another, her team developed a resistive strain gauge using PEDOT:PSS and PDMS to measure gut motility and neuronal activity of the gut’s muscle layer.

Looking forward, among other things, Owens is working toward developing patient-derived models to study diseases like IBS and MS, helping understand the role of the gut-brain axis and testing new therapies.

Symposium X—MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials features lectures aimed at a broad audience to provide meeting attendees with an overview of leading-edge topics.

Symposium X—MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials

Takashi Taniguchi, National Institute for Materials Science

Hexagonal Boron Nitride Crystal Growth and Applications

Written by Rahul Rao

When is a diamond not a diamond? When a crystal with diamond’s properties is made not from carbon, but from boron nitride. In Monday afternoon’s Symposium X—MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials, Takashi Taniguchi from Japan’s National Institute for Materials Science, spoke on his laboratory’s work with boron nitride crystals, spanning more than two decades.

Boron nitride comes in different crystal forms that shadow their carbon equivalents. Just as materials scientists can turn hexagonal graphite to cubic diamond at high pressures in the laboratory, they can transform hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) into cubic boron nitride (cBN) at around 5 GPa. Cubic boron nitride bears diamond-like hardness and wide-gap semiconductivity.

But where lab-grown diamonds have been a staple for decades, how to craft cBN is far less understood. Today’s cBN is still riddled with carbon and nitrogen impurities; one mysterious impurity causes cBN to absorb light in ultraviolet wavelengths. Taniguchi and his colleagues, then, took on the challenge of eliminating those impurities.

In the early 2000s, they found a promising impurity-culling solvent: Ba3B2N4. As it happens, growing cBN with Ba3B2N4 creates hBN as a byproduct. Although Taniguchi initially thought the hBN was largely unappealing waste, he changed his mind after discovering that the hBN had a very high purity.


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Around the world, researchers have used that hBN in some exciting applications. Engineers used hBN to make devices that emit ultraviolet light with wavelengths of around 215 mm. Researchers around the world found that they could use high-purity hBN as an excellent substrate for two-dimensional graphene electronics. More recently, researchers have realized that high-purity hBN can form effective quantum sensors. An array of hBN with boron vacancies is a recipe for useful magnetic field imagers.

Taniguchi and collaborators want to make even higher purity hBN. Their latest challenge is actually detecting those impurities: Secondary-ion mass spectrometry hits a detection limit around 10 ppm for carbon and 1 ppm for oxygen. So, they turned to electron spin resonance study. With this method and by tuning the solvent, Taniguchi could reduce carbon impurities to a few parts per billion. The result is that hBN-based ultraviolet light emitters can achieve efficiencies comparable to AlGaN light-emitting diodes.

Lastly, Taniguchi spoke about some of today’s hBN research directions. For instance, while their Ba3B2N4 solvent can work at atmospheric pressures, it is hardly ideal. Researchers are investigating other solvent metals, such as nickel. On its own, nickel isn’t a great improvement over Ba3B2N4, but by adding molybdenum, a solvent can work at 1 atmospheric pressure and 1200°C.

Additionally, researchers are now studying how to purge hBN of remaining oxygen impurities. At the same time, other researchers are experimenting with adding other types of impurities: different lanthanides can create a variety of color centers.

Symposium X—MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials features lectures aimed at a broad audience to provide meeting attendees with an overview of leading-edge topics.

Symposium X—MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials

Symposium X Thursday_270x180Taeghwan Hyeon, Seoul National University

Designing Inorganic Nanomaterials for Energy and Soft-Electronics Applications

Written by Elizabeth Wilson

Taeghwan Hyeon is a prolific materials scientist, with over 400 publications and 74,000 citations under his belt. At Thursday’s Symposium X, Hyeon, who is with Seoul University, took his audience on a tour of recent highlights in his over-30-year career, including advances in fuel cell materials, and soft electronics for heart failure, while always stressing the importance of collaboration with his many colleagues.

Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are the future of energy for transportation, Hyeon said. But the  catalysts required to produce hydrogen rely on rare, expensive platinum. “It’s impossible to get a good quality fuel cell electrode out of non-platinum materials,” he said. They key, then, is to use less of it, and increase its activity. Many groups are working on this issue. Hyeon’s group’s angle was to develop nanoparticles made of platinum iron alloys. However, the synthesis requires heating the nanoparticles, which causes the nanoparticles to coalesce into larger particles. Their solution was to coat the nanoparticles with polydopamine before heat treatment, which protects the particles, and they remain small. The result is a fuel cell that loses only 3% activity after 100 hours operation, a record high 10 times higher activity than some other similar catalysts. 

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Hyeon’s curiosity has also drawn him to materials with medical applications, in particular, heart failure. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the U.S., and one third of those deaths are caused by heart failure. As a heart fails, it pumps less and less efficiently. Since the heart's activity is based on electrical impulses, soft-electronic materials that can be shaped around the organ hold promise to bolster the faltering activity of a failing heart. Hyeon’s groups took inspiration from recent work in which scientists transplanted a pig heart into a human. Although the patient survived only three months, it showed that pig hearts, which are similar to human hearts, can be used for experiments on soft-electronic materials.

Hyeon’s collaborative group first developed a stretchable, conductive cardiac mesh out of silver nanowires impregnated in rubber. They placed it on a rat heart, and showed the material could be used to pump blood over 50% more efficiently than the heart itself. Silver oxidizes easily, and the oxidized coating is not only toxic, it does not conduct. The group solved that problem by coating the wire with inert gold. They then wrapped the meshes around a pig heart. They were able to pinpoint areas where the heart was having problems, and apply electricity where it was needed.

Hyeon has many other irons in the fire, including the development of a photocatalytic enzyme that splits water to produce hydrogen. Current hydrogen production technologies are environmentally unfriendly, so his group is developing a catalyst that mimics the activity of a bacterial hydrogenase.

How does Hyeon manage such a wide variety of research projects? Collaboration, he said. “You cannot do it all.”

Other than his work, Hyeon's other passion is tennis. “I'm either in my office or on the tennis court,” he said.

Symposium X—MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials features lectures aimed at a broad audience to provide meeting attendees with an overview of leading-edge topics.


Symposium X—MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials

Symposium X_Wednesday_800 wideKristin Persson, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory & University of California-Berkeley

The Era of Data-Driven Materials Innovation and Design

Written by Alison Hatt

At Wednesday’s Symposium X, Kristin Persson talked about the exciting era of data-driven materials innovation and design powered, in part, by the Materials Project, a research program that is revolutionizing materials research by leveraging the power of supercomputers and big data.

Creating a new material with specific properties has historically been slow, time consuming, resource intensive, and limited by human ingenuity. However, the past several decades have seen an explosion in computational materials capabilities, producing vast quantities of data and leading Persson to speculate, early in her career, about new ways of approaching materials design.

“Can we do accelerated learning on this simulated data?” asked Persson. “Can we correlate elastic tensors, dielectric tensors, and behaviors of materials, back to their crystal structure and their chemistry, and become smarter about where we go to look for new materials with specific properties?”

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Those speculations drove Persson to create the Materials Project, a program that combines high-throughput calculations and databases of calculated and measured materials properties to enable rapid screening and identification of promising candidates for various applications. This data-driven approach has the potential to accelerate the discovery of new materials with tailored properties, saving time and resources compared to traditional synthetic methods.

“Because we don’t have a hundred years to figure out some of our problems,” Persson said. “We have to be faster. We cannot do materials design as we have in the past.”

To illustrate the power of the Materials Project approach, Persson described a project to create a better photoanode for artificial photosynthesis, to meet precise criteria for the electronic structure and photochemical stability. Using the Materials Project tools, they identified a few thousand compounds that met some broader criteria, further filtered the list down to about 400 compounds, and then performed focused calculations to narrow those down to 34 compounds that met their more specific criteria. Working with John Gregoire at Caltech, the researchers rapidly synthesized the candidate compounds using inkjet printing, and identified 16 that met the stated criteria.

In a second example, Persson described efforts to find a lead-free piezoelectric material. Using a similar process, the team identified a potentially unstable phase of strontium hafnium oxide compound that met their criteria but presented substantial synthetic challenges. Collaborators at National Renewable Energy Laboratory eventually made the compound, but the entire process took two years, far slower than Persson envisions for the future of materials discovery.

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The two examples highlighted the impact of experimental bottlenecks on the accelerated materials design process. Persson shared a vision for improving the process through automated synthesis capabilities, wherein the details of large numbers of experiments, both successful ones and failures, are recorded and made available to the broader community. She went on to reveal that last month, Gerd Cedar’s group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory took their new tool for automated synthesis online and synthesized 39 completely new compounds from Materials Project predictions in just three weeks.

However, Persson also acknowledged the challenges and limitations of data-driven materials research. She emphasized the need for continuous efforts to improve the accuracy and reliability of computational methods, as well as the availability and quality of materials data. She also addressed the glittering promise of machine learning, which seems poised to revolutionize the field, and cautioned that we must use ML judiciously and not attempt to extrapolate beyond the available, real data.

Persson closed by lauding the power of the Materials Project to democratize materials data, as its powerful tools and vast databases can be used, for free, by researchers in any part of the world.  Faster, more powerful, and more equitable: it’s a compelling vision for the future of materials research.   

Symposium X—MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials features lectures aimed at a broad audience to provide meeting attendees with an overview of leading-edge topics.

Data-Driven Materials Innovation and Design with Kristin Persson

MRS TV talks with Kristin Persson, the Daniel M. Teller Distinguished Professor at the University of California, Berkeley, and the Director of the Molecular Foundry, a user facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. She is the Director and founder of the Materials Project, a world-leading resource for materials data and design, and shared her talk "The Era of Data-Driven Materials Innovation and Design" at Wednesday's Symposium X.

Symposium X—MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials

50 Years of Materials Research Syposium X_800 wide

Written by Elizabeth Wilson

In the past 50 years, materials science advances, from cell phones to solar panels, have literally changed the world. At the Symposium X session, a group of past MRS presidents and journal editors chose their favorite past breakthroughs, including high temperature superconductors, conducting polymers, advances in microscopy, and solar technology.

But the group’s vision is united in what lies ahead: they predict artificial intelligence and deep learning will be crucial for solving ever more complex problems. And with climate change, sustainability and other world-wide issues, they foresee a sea change in how materials scientists approach problems. No longer can they afford to pursue developments without first considering their global implications. “There will be a huge transformation in the way materials scientists approach their work—to start to ask questions at the beginning,” said moderator Carolyn R. Duran, who is with Intel Corporation, and is immediate past MRS president.

The history of materials science has been undeniably rich. Some developments have progressed gradually, but high temperature superconductivity, “came out of the blue,” said Julia M. Phillips retired from Sandia National Laboratories. “This was one of the true revolutionary, as opposed to evolutionary advances,” she said.  First reported by IBM scientists in 1986, and which received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1987, the discovery changed the way scientists think of materials. Their complex structures unleashed a flood of research on new materials, including magnetic oxides and perovskites. And advances in theory and simulation are now helping to guide experiments, rather than simply validate results, she said.

Conducting polymers are another materials science success story, said Rigoberto Advincula, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and editor in chief of MRS Communications. Though research on conducting organic compounds began in the 1950s, it was the late 1970s and early 1980s that saw a breakthrough in the discovery of stable polymers that could compete with copper and other metals, Advincula said. The discovery won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Now, the field is flush with developments in organic light-emitting diodes and flexible electronics. “If you have a smart phone, or a TV with an LED screen, that is really the product of this period,” he said.

Much of the exploration of new materials is possible thanks to advances in the ability to look at them, even at the atomic level, said Susan Trolier-McKinstry, at The Pennsylvania State University; these include electron microscopy, aberration correction in microscopy, new ways of controlling electron beams, massive advances in the ability to resolve space and time.

Peter F. Green, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, highlighted progress in perovskite solar cell technology. First developed in 2009-2012, they are the highest efficiency solar cell ever made on plastic. Their efficiencies have increased from 3.8% in 2009 to almost 30% today. Their light weight, long lifetimes, and high defect tolerances make them attractive for many solar applications, including space missions. Scientists are hoping production can be scaled up cheaply and widely commercialized.

Looking toward the next 50 years in materials science, all research will be accelerated by advances in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and deep learning, the group agreed.

With this power comes responsibility. Scientists are now thinking about how their research affects society and the impact on the world, Phillips said, “not just this really cool materials research problem.” Doing this, she added, requires bringing in disciplines beyond sciences and engineering, including the social sciences and the people who will be impacted and the planet itself.

Crucial to this philosophical shift, the group agreed, will be to engage students in STEM early in their education, even elementary school. “Materials science is a great entry point for young kids,” said Phillips.

Symposium X—MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials

BikElisabeth Bik, Harbers Bik LLC

The Dark Side of Science: Misconduct in Biomedical Research

Written by Alison Hatt

In her Symposium X presentation, Elisabeth Bik talked about her efforts to identify and address misconduct in the scientific literature. “Science should be self-correcting,” she said, “and I try to be part of that process, because that’s going to make science better.” 

Science misconduct can take the form of plagiarism, falsification, or fabrication of data. Much of Bik’s work has focused on inappropriate image duplication, in which authors use the same image or data set multiple times to represent different experiments or results, often altering or repositioning elements using image-editing software. While most of her work is focused on the biomedical field, Bik showed several concerning examples from materials science publications where, for example, the same x-ray diffraction pattern appeared to be used to represent different materials compositions or a micrograph was clearly a composite image of the same few nanoparticles repeated over and over again.

Bik shared results of a study where she scanned more than 20,000 biomedical papers by eye and identified duplicated images in 4% of them, about half of which appeared to be cases of misconduct. Disappointingly, reporting these papers to the journals in which they appear does little to solve the problem. Of hundreds of papers Bik has reported, only about a third get retracted or corrected, and in most cases the journal takes no action. And even when journals do act, they tend to do so slowly, often allowing fraudulent papers to remain in the scientific literature for five or more years in the meantime.

Disillusioned by this response, Bik now posts her concerns to the website rather than reporting to the individual journals. She encouraged the audience to install the freely available PubPeer extension that identifies papers that have received comments from the community, so researchers can avoid building their own work on problematic data.

The individual researchers who commit misconduct are typically driven by desperate situations, Bik noted, saying that behind every misconduct case is a sad story. Researchers may be subject to unrealistic requirements or expectations of their employers, or they could be junior researchers working under a bullying professor who demands results. Bik is more critical of the journals that allow papers to pass through peer review without apparent scrutiny and institutions that impose strict mandates on the number of publications needed for career advancement.

Bik is also critical of papermills that sell fake articles written by ghostwriters using fabricated data. She showed an example of an identical data set appearing in several very different papers. Another approach used by papermills is synonymized plagiarism, in which an article is copied verbatim but every word or phrase is replaced by a synonym, resulting in bizarre but comprehensible prose.

The rise of advanced computing and artificial intelligence complicates matters. Computer programs can more rigorously scour publications to identify duplicated images and problematic data, but their results are prone to false positives and need to be validated by humans. Meanwhile, AI is getting increasingly good at creating fake pictures and will almost certainly be capable of generating images for research articles that won’t be easily detected by journals or reviewers.

Bik presented several measures to help prevent misconduct in scientific literature. We should continue the trend toward open science, where researchers share full data sets and not just the snippets that appear in articles. Culturally, we should reduce our emphasis on publications as measures of research productivity and focus on mentoring students and junior researchers in good research methods. Reports of misconduct should be resolved quickly by journals and not allowed to remain in the literature, and strong consequences should be imposed on those who commit misconduct. Journals should also take greater responsibility for checking the papers they publish. Finally, the people who report misconduct need to be protected from retaliation, as the work is a necessary part of the self-correcting scientific process. 

Symposium X—MRS/The Kavli Foundation Frontiers of Materials features lectures aimed at a broad audience to provide meeting attendees with an overview of leading-edge topics.