Sympsoium EL19: Atomically-Thin 2D Materials and Heterostructures—Synthesis, Properties and Applications

Raphaela de Oliveira, UFMG

Mechanical Nanomanipulation of Water Confined in a Naturally Occurring Water-Hybrid 2D System

Written by Mruganka Parasnis

Water transport in nanocavities in the Earth’s interior is an important topic which can be quantified to its elastic and viscosity behavior using nanotribology. Artificial nanocapillaries can be quantified to observe water transport and understand Van-Der Waal interactions. Minerals which occur naturally have hydrous cavities in the Earth. Phyllosilicate materials have wide-band insulators, which can be exfoliated to monolayers that can absorb water. Water confines in the layers due to the electrostatic charge. Nanomanipulation was performed on the interlamellar water in clinochlore by AFM in contact mode. FTIR and AFM combined were used to observe chlinochore that formed ice-like structures. Clinochore was functionalized to observe interactions due to changed surface charge. Pressure was increased from 1 µN pressure, 1.5 µN. These structures can be used for real life applications such as microfluidics and in the biomedical industry.

Symposium EL12: Perspective on Applications of Metasurfaces—Advances in Metasurface Design, Fabrication, Integration and Material

Juejun Hu, Massachusetts Institute of Techonology

Wide Field-Of-View Metasurface Optics—From Fundamentals to Applications

Written by Md Afzalur Rab

A wide field of view (FOV) allows us to capture the surrounding views in only one frame without image stitching or mechanical scanning. The wider the FOV, the more one can see of the observable world. FOV is measured horizontally, vertically, and diagonally. To determine FOV, the lens of the camera, its focal length and the sensor size, all play roles. Wide field-of-view optics are widely used in various imaging, display, and sensing. In this talk, Juejun Hu from the Massachusetts institute of Technology discusses his group's research on FOV.

Conventional refractive FOV optics has drawbacks: it involves a number of stacked lenses, so large size, much weight and high cost. Metasurface lenses promises a practical solution to realize wide FOV optics without using complex lenses. Hu explains his group's work to formulate an analytical design framework for wide FOV metasurfaces. They used two separate configurations: imaging optics and projection optics. They have implemented several devices by using their design framework with a focus on application in extended depth-of-field imaging where the camera does not need to sacrifice brightness or resolution while extending the depth of field. 

Symposium EL20: Future Materials and Technologies Toward Sustainable Heterogeneous Computing and Energy-efficient Machine Learning

Mario Lanza, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

Vector Matrix Multiplication with 2D Materials

Written by Matthew Nakamura

In the virtual session titled “Vector Matrix Multiplication with 2D Materials,” Mario Lanza from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology discusses advancements in artificial intelligence systems. Traditional silicon microchips for artificial neural networks (ANNs) face inefficiencies in vector matrix multiplication (VMM), consuming excessive time and energy. Lanza proposes using two-dimensional layered crossbar arrays of memristors for VMM. Here the advantages and challenges compared to traditional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices were presented. He delves into the principles of electronic synapses, memristors, and in-memory computing with memristors. Additionally, exploring the efficiency of their designed crossbar memristor devices and their energy consumption. This design presents promising results, achieving a VMM device leveraging the proposed crossbars of memristors design that works with minimal errors. Lanza concludes that these devices can be used to fabricate small-sized memristors that would create large improvements over existing technologies and emphasizes the need for on-chip device engineering for integration of this technology into microchip devices.

Symposium EL13: Multiferroics and Magnetoelectrics

Michael Page, Air Force Research Laboratory

Nonreciprocity and Nonlinearity in Hybrid Magnetoacoustic Devices

Written by Md Afzalur Rab

Nonlinear acoustics deals with acoustic waves of significantly large amplitudes. The law of acoustic reciprocity states that, in the presence of a vibration source, the signal received by a receiver remains the same when locations of source and receiver are interchanged. But breaking the acoustic reciprocity is important to create a robust one-directional propagation where sound waves are permitted to travel in only one way. Two useful metrics in quantifying the nonreciprocity of the acoustic systems are isolation loss (defined as the ratio between forward and backward transmission) and insertion loss (defined as how much signal power is lost in the forward transmission due to the presence of the nonreciprocal element).

In this talk, Michael Page has discussed his research group’s discoveries of nonreciprocity and nonlinearity in surface acoustic waves interacting with magnetic materials. They have fabricated a multilayered lithium niobate structures coated with ferromagnet/insulator/ferromagnet or FeGaB/Al2O3/FeGaB. After that they have measured a remarkable nonreciprocity of 48.4 dB (ratio of 1:100,000) in the transmission of surface acoustic waves. They also engineered transducers to concentrate acoustic energy toward a center of the device to allow significantly higher driven magnetic precession. Their devices outperformed even the current state of the art high frequency magnetoacoustic devices in terms of size and power loss.

Symposium SF01: Additive Manufacturing—From Material Design to Emerging Applications

Shomik Verma, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

End-To-End Performance Analysis of 3D Printed Luminescent Devices for Energy Conversion Applications

Written by Corrisa Heyes

One largely untapped area of potential efficiency increase in solar devices is to collect every from a broader range of light spectra. Conventional solar devices have an intrinsic efficiency limit due to the light bands for which they are able to gather energy. Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) are able to absorb light in the IR or UV spectrum and re-emits it in a specified wavelength. Additionally, as LSC may be constructed in a variety of modular, brightly colored configurations, there are many applications for their use in aesthetically appealing, energy-harvesting installations. Unfortunately, LSCs also suffer from a lack of efficiency that traditional testing methods are struggling to address. PhD student Shomik Verma from MIT presents his low-cost process for 3D printing LSC designs in order to explore device shape and pattern as a means of minimizing the optical loss mechanisms and improving overall efficiency of solar energy collection systems. His method allows for rapid prototyping and testing of new LSC designs.

Symposium EL12: Perspective on Applications of Metasurfaces—Advances in Metasurface Design, Fabrication, Integration and Material

Yueqiang Hu, Hunan University

Extreme Micro/Nanomanufacturing for Metasurface Applications

Written by Matthew Nakamura

In his talk, Yueqiang Hu, a professor at Hunan University, discusses advancements in micro/nanomanufacturing, utilized in the integrated-circuits industry and micro/nanosystems development with a focus on pushing manufacturing toward ultrasmall dimensions and ultrahigh precision for various applications. Hu introduces the processing capabilities available to Hunan University (HNU) like sketch and peel lithography, greyscale lithography, and conformal filling with ion beam polishing to achieve multiscale, multidimensional, and high-precision fabrication capabilities for functional micro/nanostructures. The presentation showcases applications in 2D and 3D metasurfaces as well as optical metadevices.

The second part of the talk delves into the realm of optical metasurfaces, emphasizing their advantages over traditional refractive optics. Metasurfaces, being ultrathin, multifunctional, and easily integrable through CMOS processes, are considered the next generation of optics. Hu explores the extreme fabrication requirements of dielectric metasurfaces, detailing the nanofabrication processes performed and highlights applications such as polarization modulation, vectorial color holography, multi-focal metalenses, 3D vectoral holography, and dispersion modulation. The presentation concludes by envisioning the future applications of these micro-nano fabrication processes in creating intelligent, compact, and multifunctional optical systems.

Symposium SF06: From Robotic Towards Autonomous Materials

Ugur Bozuyuk, Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Germany

Magnetic Surface Microrollers for Endovascular Navigation

Written by Birgul Akolpoglu

Ugur Bozuyuk’s talk on magnetic surface microrollers addressed current challenges in drug delivery and presented microrobotic solutions. Bozuyuk focuses on the role of targeting for efficient drug delivery applications, and highlights the potential of microrobotic drug delivery by external control mechanisms, such as magnetic fields. However, a limitation exists: the difficulty of microrobot locomotion in the bloodstream due to strong fluidic forces and other physiological challenges. To overcome this, Bozuyuk introduced magnetic surface microrollers propelled by rotating magnetic fields, demonstrating fast locomotion. While their potential for navigation in blood vessels was evident in microfluidic chips, he acknowledged the need to explore real-world limitations. Investigating microtopography effects, they found that surface roughness influenced motion, and they revealed further insights through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The confinement effect, explored using cylindrical channels, showcased a fundamental barrier generated by the flow generated inside, causing the microrollers swim against the intended direction. Examining flow effects in different blood vessels, Bozuyuk observed variations in microroller performance. Microroller locomotion in big blood vessels is relatively easy due to the parabolic flow profile, however smaller vessels such as venules and capillaries have more flow velocities, preventing upstream locomotion. The talk concluded with a focus on biocompatibility, as they optimized new materials and conducted imaging-guided navigation experiments, showing potential in physiological environments. Bozuyuk's research contributes to advancing microrobotic capabilities for targeted drug delivery in complex biological systems.

Symposium EL10: Understanding the Inorganic-Organic Interface—The Case of Colloidal Nanoscale Materials

Inge Herrmann, ETH Zurich

Exploring Interplay of Engineered Materials with the Living by Label-Free Analytical Imaging

Written by Mruganka Parasnis

Nanoscale materials have been used in biomedicine due to specific drug delivery and antimicrobial activity. Inge Herrmann of ETH Zurich discussed how bioactive tissue glue with orchestrated bio response was created. Different phases of wound healing for blood vessels and remodeling were assessed, such as adhesive, antimicrobial, and angiogenic phases. The approach to do this is the versatile, reproducible scale combing inorganic materials such as cerium phosphate based nanozymes with documented properties with catalytic functions to convert them to inactive cerium phosphate. SEM and EDX show the adhesion of fibrin to tissue. The clotting time, rapid homogenesis, and cell survival rate was successful. Furthermore, it was administered in vivo to rats. The nano glue promoted healing, observed through an increase in the blood flow. Label-free detection of alterations in surrounding area of tissue was observed. Different architectures of nanoparticles showcased different bio responses. Proteomics was performed on the immune cell activator enrichment along with fluorescence microscopy to observe the localization of nanoparticles and chemical changes. After the analysis, the researchers concluded that the surgical sealants of polymers before leak happens can be used based on clinical symptoms in a chemically and mechanically demanding environment. A mutually interpenetrating network was fabricated which is a new adhesion technology for leak detection. The study can provide a mechanistic understanding of functional biomaterials and tissue response in in vitro and in vivo environments.

Symposium SB03: Molecular Biomimetics—Biology Meets Materials Science and Artificial Intelligence at the Molecular Dimensions

Xuliang Qian, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Harnessing Gradients for Self-Assembly of Peptide-Based Nanocapsules: A Pathway to Advanced Drug Delivery Systems

Written by Mruganka Parasnis

Xuliang Qian of Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, reported on the utilization of insect cuticle peptides for forming nanocapsules. Qian said that a one-step process was involved as a solvent exchange process. In this technique, the water and acetone were mixed together to form as a gradient interface for the localization and self-assembly of peptides to the nanocapsules. The self-assembly occurs due to intrinsic affinity and conformation of peptides to self-assemble at a particular concentration. This paves the way for the next-generation drug delivery of peptide nanocapsules.

Symposium EL07: 1D and 2D Materials—Electronic Properties and Device Applications

Farnaz Niroui, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Van der Waals Integration beyond the Limits of Van der Waals Forces

Written by Corrisa Heyes

Farnaz Niroui of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology presents her work to expand the applications of van der Waals (vdW) integration as a physical stacking alternative to conventional heterostructure production by addressing the materials properties limitations of the method. She demonstrates an adhesive matrix transfer process where a hybrid transfer substrate is generated to leverage the higher adhesive capabilities of one material to support a layer transfer to a less adhesive desired material. This process further allows for single step 2D material-to-device fabrication with pristine interfaces, engineered functionalities, and alternate form factors (i.e., flexible substrates or arrays of devices) made without any solvents, polymers, or high temperature annealing processes. Additionally, Niroui points out that this process is not limited to 2D materials and shows how gold nanocubes can be assembled over a large area using this method.