Paul Kempen, Technical University of Denmark
Characterization of Heavy Metal Loaded Liposomes In Vitro using Transmission Electron Microscopy
Written by Kerianne Dobosz
Direct imaging of nanoparticles in biological systems can improve the efficiency of treatment by showing where the nanoparticles are going and how they are getting there, which would give insight on release, uptake, and cytotoxicity. Starting with gold nanoparticles, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to visualize the nanoparticles in liver tissue by measuring chemical composition in addition to morphology. With silica nanoparticles degradation, change is seen over time. Organic nanoparticles present challenges to distinguish the nanoparticles from vesicles or organelles due to similar size, organic composition, and low mass contrast. Therefore the nanoparticles are labeled with metals. With these samples, it is important to take into account the sample preparation. Here paraformaldehyde and gluteraldehyde to fix the sample to withstand vacuum as well as staining and immunolabeling agents such as uranyl acetate, osmium tetroxide, and LR white were used. With these added agents, Paul Kempen looked at their interference with species of interest to tune the correct system. To apply these findings, an effective rat blood brain barrier was created with tight junctions to better understand transport into the brain.